In the previous tutorial we took a closer look at the data types available to us in JavaScript and the variables, or containers, we use to store those values. We also saw how we can use conditionals, using if and else, to control the flow of our programs.

In this tutorial we’re going to introduce some of the properties and methods exposed to us by the data types in JavaScript. Finally, we’ll wrap up by taking our first look at iteration.

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First, create a new directory for the code we’ll write in this tutorial.

mkdir webdev-properties-and-methods

Then use cd to move into your new directory.

cd webdev-properties-and-methods

Within this directory, create the new file for your code.

touch properties-and-methods.js


At the end of the previous tutorial we created a few objects and accessed their properties using dot notation as shown below.

let myUser = {
  name: 'Adam Morgan',
  age: 28

console.log(; // Adam Morgan

Well in JavaScript nearly everything is an object, including strings. This means strings, including all the strings we’ve created up to this point, have information about them that we can access known as properties.

We’ll start by accessing a string’s length property.

let username = 'adam';
console.log(username.length); // 4

As you can see, we use dot notation just as we did with objects to print the length of the string username using username.length.

Another data type we’ve used, arrays, also have a length property.

let languages = ['javascript', 'ruby', 'python'];
console.log(languages.length); // 3

So what’s a practical application of a property such as length? We can use a combination of conditionals, the length property, and a comparison operator to create logic you’ve probably encountered at some point using the Internet.

let username = 'adam';

if (username.length < 5) {
  console.log('Your username is too short.');
} else {
  console.log('Your username meets the length requirements!');

Here we’ve used the length property in the expression of our if statement. If the length of username is less than (<) 5 characters, we print a message to the user notifying them of the length requirement. Otherwise, we let the user know their username is valid.

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Properties and Logical Operators

In addition to the comparison operator we used in the example above, we also have logical operators at our disposal which we can leverage at times like this.

The first operator we’ll look at is the logical AND (&&) operator. When you’re comparing two booleans with &&, both have to be true for the combination to be true.

console.log(true && true); // true

In this example we’ve used the && operator to compare two booleans: true and true. Since they’re both true, the result of the comparison is also true. Let’s see how the && operator works with the remaining combinations.

console.log(true && true); // true
console.log(true && false); // false
console.log(false && true); // false
console.log(false && false); // false

As you can see, unless both sides of the && operator are true, the result is false. The combination of possibilities above is what’s known as a “truth table”.

Now, we can combine the logical && operator with the length property and comparison operator we used earlier for a more comprehensive example.

let username = 'adammorgan';
let password = '123';

if (username.length > 5 && password.length > 5) {
  console.log('Your username and password meet the length requirements!');
} else {
  console.log('Your username or password is too short.');

Here we have both username and password variables declared and initialized with values. Then within our if statement we use the && operator with two expressions.

If statement with logical operator

On the left side is username.length > 5 and on the right side is password.length > 5. If both expressions evaluate to true, the code in our if statement is executed. Otherwise, the code in else is executed.

Run that code and you should see Your username or password is too short. printed to the screen because the length of password is too short. We can verify && is working correctly by updating the value of password to be greater than 5 characters.

let username = 'adammorgan';
let password = 's3cr3t';

if (username.length > 5 && password.length > 5) {
  console.log('Your username and password meet the length requirements!');
} else {
  console.log('Your username or password is too short.');

The REPL is your friend!

If at anytime you want to verify the result of these expressions just open a REPL and enter the code you want to run.

let username = 'adammorgan';
username.length > 5;  // true

You can also avoid variables altogether and just reference the length property on the string itself.

'adammorgan'.length > 5; // true
's3cr3t'.length > 5; // true

The other logical operator available to us is the logical OR (||) operator. Unlike &&, || evaluates to true if either expression is true. We can see how this works by recreating the truth table from earlier using ||.

console.log(true || true); // true
console.log(true || false); // true
console.log(false || true); // true
console.log(false || false); // false

As you can see, only one expression needs to be true for the result to be true.

We can see how we might use this in a program with the following example where we want to restrict certain features in an application to a type of user such as an administrator or moderator.

let user = {
  isAdmin: false,
  isModerator: true

if (user.isAdmin || user.isModerator) {
  console.log('I only care about one of these! They are authorized!');
} else {
  console.log('Don\'t let them in!');

Here we have an object with two properties, isAdmin and isModerator, set to booleans. Then within our if statement we use the || operator with two expressions on either side. On the left side is user.isAdmin and on the right side is user.isModerator.

Run that code and you should see I only care about one of these! They are authorized! printed to the screen because only one of the two expressions needs to be true. Once again we can verify everything is working correctly by updating both values to false.

let user = {
  isAdmin: false,
  isModerator: false

if (user.isAdmin || user.isModerator) {
  console.log('I only care about one of these! They are authorized!');
} else {
  console.log('Don\'t let them in!');


In addition to properties we also have methods available to us as well.

let username = 'Adam';

console.log(username.toLowerCase()); // adam
console.log(username.toUpperCase()); // ADAM

Unlike properties which are values, a method is a function that we call with parentheses (like we do with console.log()) to get the value we want. These are just two of the string methods available to us and you can see a complete list of string methods here.

As a programmer, learning how to read documentation is an extremely important skill to develop. Let’s explore the documentation for array methods.

Array methods

In this image are just a few of the array methods available to us. Let’s take a closer look at the pop() method. As the description says pop() “removes the last element from an array and returns that element.” You can click the method name in the list and see even more details along with a few examples demonstrating how pop() works.

We can create our own example to illustrate the effects of pop().

let favoriteFruits = ['mango', 'blueberry', 'raspberry'];
let returnedValue = favoriteFruits.pop();

console.log(favoriteFruits); // ['mango', 'blueberry']
console.log(returnedValue); // raspberry

Run this program and you’ll see that after calling pop(), the last element in the favoriteFruits array has been removed. We can also see that calling favoriteFruits.pop() returned a value which we assigned to the variable returnedValue.

While we’re at it, we can test out the push() method listed just below pop(). The description for push() says it “adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length of the array.”

We can see how this works with the following example.

let favoriteFruits = ['mango', 'blueberry', 'raspberry'];
let returnedValue = favoriteFruits.push('passionfruit');

console.log(favoriteFruits); // ['mango', 'blueberry', 'raspberry', 'passionfruit']
console.log(returnedValue); // 4


The last topic we’re going to cover is known as iteration. Iteration in programming is the technique of repeating one or many statements for a defined number of repetitions with each repetition known as an iteration.

Let’s build up to this idea by first taking a look at the charAt() string method.

let name = 'Adam';

console.log(name.charAt(0)); // A

As you can see the charAt() method takes a single parameter, an index, and returns the character in the string at that index. We could continue for the remaining characters by copying and pasting the console.log() statement incrementing the index each time.

let name = 'Adam';

console.log(name.charAt(0)); // A
console.log(name.charAt(1)); // d
console.log(name.charAt(2)); // a
// ...and so on

However, that gets old really quick. It’s a lot of copying and pasting which is repetitive and error prone.

When we covered data types, we learned about variables that could store values such as Hello, world! so that we wouldn’t have to repeatedly copy that value over and over. In a similar way, we can avoid duplicating console.log() using what’s known as a for loop. First, let’s take a look at a generic for loop.

for (let i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

console.log('Done! Outside the for loop!');

Similar to an if statement, we begin our loop with the keyword for followed by a pair of parentheses. Within those parentheses are three expressions seperated by semicolons. Let’s break these down one by one.

  1. initialization - This is where we initialize a counter variable: let i = 0;.
  2. condition - This is an expression that’s evaluated before each iteration. If this evaluates to true, the statement(s) within the curly braces {} is executed. If the expression evaluates to false, execution skips to the next statement following the for loop.
  3. final expression - This is an expression that’s evaluated after each iteration and is generally used to increment the counter variable initialized in the initiliazation step above.

So let’s walk through the loop code step by step.

for (let i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

console.log('Done! Outside the for loop!');

When this code is run, it begins with the initialization step by declaring i and setting it to 0. Then the condition i < 5 is evaluated. Since it evaluates to true the statement(s) within the curly braces {} (also referred to as a block statement) is run. At this point i is 0 so the number 0 is printed to the screen. Now that the single statement has been run, the third expression in the for statement is evaluated: i++. The i++ syntax simply increments the value of i by 1.

In the next iteration the condition i < 5 is evaluated again using the new, incremented value for i which is 1. Once again the condition evaluates to true so the block statement is run again.

This repeats until i < 5 evaluates to false. Once it does, our code exits the for loop running the first statement following for which is console.log('Done! Outside the for loop!');. Run the code listed above and you should see the following printed to your screen.

Done! Outside the for loop!

Now we can take our previous example and print every character in a string using a single console.log() within a for loop.

let name = 'Adam';

for (let i = 0; i < name.length; i++) {

We can also use a for loop with an array to print out every element within the array.

let sales = [5, 7, 3.5, 8];

for (let i = 0; i < sales.length; i++) {

Running that code should print the following.


Rather than print every element within sales, why not use the for loop to keep a running total instead? We can do that with the following code.

let sales = [5, 7, 3.5, 8];
let total = 0;

for (let i = 0; i < sales.length; i++) {
  total = total + sales[i];

console.log(total); // 23.5

Now rather than printing the value during each iteration we repeatedly increment the value of total with total = total + sales[i].

Finally, we can use a for loop to do things like modify an array of strings.

let exclamations = ['run', 'hide', 'get away'];

for (let i = 0; i < exclamations.length; i++) {
  exclamations[i] = exclamations[i].toUpperCase();

console.log(exclamations); // ['RUN', 'HIDE', 'GET AWAY']


Before we finish, add your latest changes with Git.

git add properties-and-methods.js

Then add a commit message.

git commit -m "Add properties and methods"

Then push these changes up to GitHub.

git push origin master


A few for loops are listed below that use different data types, methods, and operators we’ve seen so far. Try guessing the results of each loop before running them to see if you’re right.

// Exercise #1
let names = ['   john', 'jane   ', '  jeff  '];

for (let i = 0; i < names.length; i++) {
  names[i] = names[i].trim();

// Exercise #2
let languages = ['java', 'javascript', 'html', 'css', 'ruby'];

for (let i = 0; i < languages.length; i++) {
  if (languages[i].includes('java')) {

// Exercise #3
let language = 'javascript';

for (let i = 0; i < language.length; i++) {

// Exercise #4
let title = 'ceo';

for (let i = 0; i < title.length; i++) {

For additional practice, try writing a few for loops of your own. Pick an array method to see how it works.

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